The theory for gravity as an induced effect
that exists due to other forces of Nature is developed

mainly for the quantum level. This approach uses term,
"zero-point fluctuation" as a description of the process of virtual
electron-positron pair creation and annihilation [1]. But what is
the reason for the existence of gravity without quantum mechanics
? Gravity displays itself mainly for macro systems level, e.g.:
as gravitational field of planet.

A conclusion can be that Conservation of Energy, in the
general sense, is the conservation of zero-

point or energy level or conservation of rest.

The gravitational field can not be screened by means of
shield - as it is for the electrical field (the

anti-matter version is not discussed here). However, the technology
for the compensation of

gravitation exists. It is the method of the inertial propulsion
[2].

When a mass-object is moving along a circumference, centrifugal force is created in all radial directions. In this case. there is no propulsion force in some radial directions. However, if the trajectory of movement is asymmetrical, acceleration in a vector differs from acceleration in others.

The well-known formula: F=Ma, where F is force; M is mass; a is acceleration,
is the description of the process that provides Newton's Second Law: Action
equals to Reaction. When an action leads to acceleration, a reaction force
is created. Note that this case s connected with the acceleration of

curved-line motion. However, in general case, we can find the demonstration
of this Law in any area, including that for linear movement.

As the Velocity of a mass-object increases, the force against it is
being created. We call it "inertia".

Did the "inertia" exist "inside" the body while it was at rest? In
other words, is inertia the inner property of mass-object or is it being
created when the energy of the body increases or decreases? The same line
of questioning can be formulated for the electromagnetic induction.
As action is created due to a change in the magnetic field, reaction emerges
in the form of an induced secondary field in order to compensate for that
primary change. Thus, electromagnetic induction can be considered to be
an analogy to inertia.

So the question about inertia as an innate property of mass-objects
has a solution; the same applies

for the electromagnetic law ot the induction version. lnasmuch inducted
secondary fields do not

exist prior to changes in primary fields, so inertia cannot exist as
an innate property of mass-objects. In both cases this "secondary effect"
is a property of spacetime, and not that of masses or coils of wire. In
certain cases, the demonstration of this effect is defined by the value
of mass or parameters of the electromagnetic system. There is rest-mass
only: inertial mass is either created or remains transparent and therefore,
the question of two sets of masses does not exist.

G-mass can be compensated by inertial mass. This special case was discussed
in old physics

textbooks: as a mass rotates horizontally around its axis, due to the
centrifugal force, there results

no weight-effect upon the axis. It is the "same old news" when modern
scientists observe a decrease in weight for rotating masses. Weight (G-force
is the attraction of the mass-object to the planet) is compensated by means
of a simple motion. Without it, gravity exists as result of another motion,
another process.

The relationship between electricity and gravity, the transformation
of electrical power into gravity

and the possibility of a reverse transformation are developed as "electrogravitics".
An analogy lies

in the asymmetry of electrical potential fields designed to obtain
propulsive force [3] or power [4].

However, there is no motion in these electrostatic technologies; an
explanation for this is given by E.

Whittaker [5] wherein the electrical potential field has a bi-directional
energy flow. Based on this

concept, the inner structure of electric potentials results from 2
opposite, balanced parts: photons

(direct-time) radiated from charged mass and anti-photons that exist
in reverse-time

In our viewpoint, this oncoming flow of anti-photons derives from the
future, in past time. We are

unable to observe the ordinary flow of photons in electrical potential
fields since they are in equilibrium with anti-photons in the time-axis.
For Whittaker, both exist in the structure ot potentials. If half of the
inner structure of an electric potential is changed when a potential is
applied to do work

and to initiate the power process, the other half (the reverse-time
energy flow) must react. Thus, a

compensation of time - in the form of the deceleration of time's rate
- can take place.

We can visualize the notion, "time" as being the "other side" of gravity:
A mass-object moves along

a curved trajectory and **F=Ma** is created in radial directions,
non-equally. In some radial directions,

the trajectory is more curved than in others. Acceleration and Force
are then asymmetrical. Some

linear force emerges in such directions, where a curvature gradients
exist. A new question arises:

do inertial propulsion systems drive for non-reactive motion only (permitting
a novel technology of

supportless, non-reactive crafts) or is something else created
which is already here?

It should be impossible to generate propulsion force as a motion in
space alone by means of

inertia. This propulsion force also has a time-direction component.
Indeed, inertial propulsion systems should demonstrate some chronal effects.

As the asymmetrical curved trajectory for mass-object was considered
as the unique method for

generating a non-reactive propulsion force, let's consider the nature
of time as a spatial curvature.

Therefore, for linear curvatures the formula is: **p=1/R**, where
**p** is curvature [1/m]; **R** is radius [m]. On evenly-curved surfaces,
curvature is defined as: **p= 1/R + 1/R** and so, **p =2/R **[1/m].
These formulae appear in any mathematical reference.

The curved, 3-dimensional space case is not considered. By analogy,
it should be: **p = 3/R** [1/m].

So, the curvature of space can be described by the linear radius value
and by the factor 3.

Now, another analogy: for light as an electromagnetic wave, there exists
the relationship:
**l=c/f **[m], where **l**
is the wavelength [m]; **c** is the velocity of light [m/s]; **f**
is frequency [I/s].

Let us assume that we may replace the factor "**c**" for "3"
and that the 2 formulae describe the same

process: that of the creation of spacetime whereby time is a 3-D curvature.
It is the "other side" of the same coin: radius and curvature. But, based
on the definition of curvature, 3-dimensional curvature cannot be observed
in 3-space.

Yet note: we can observe and create the process of curving a line in
a circumference, or of a surface

on a sphere. And we can observe time. So the nature of time must be
the same for line, surface

or 3-space. It is the process or change-of-space in any direction that
does not exist in this space.

Such direction can be created only in a new dimension, which for a
line is flat and for a surface is

3-space. For 3-space, time is the new dimension.

** "Action is the curvature of the world,"** wrote Pavel
D. Ouspensky [6], signifying that as one tries to understand the 3-curvature
geometrically, one errs. For time, action (or process) is 3-curvature.
In physics, new properties are commonly acquired as the result of change
in some property: charge, current, induced magnetic field, etc.. Here,
the new property becomes a new dimension.

So, for the frequency of oscillations, the formula is **f = 3l
[1/s]**, where **l** is wavelength
in [m]. Here, the velocity of light is equal to 3 (10 ^{8} mathematical
degree is omitted since it is a question of scale of measurement only).

Therefore, the analogy between 3-curvature and frequency: **p = 3/R**
[1/m] and **f = 3/l **[1/s]. The

3-dimensional radius is represented by **R= l/p
= R/3 [m]** and time as a period of oscillation has the relationship:
**T= l/f = l/3 [s]**.
Time can be considered to be equivalent to R if the linear radius r and
the wavelength h are the same. This is a condition for the spatial resonance
effect. Note: "m" and "s" are unlike when length is measured in meters
in 3-space. However, for a new dimension it is possible to use equal units
for "m" of 4th dimension and conventional "second". Furthermore, light

(photons) is possible in 3-space only as a process in such a spatial
resonator.

Time is an effect of 3-dimensional (spatial) curvature for mass-objects.
There is no absolute time

without mass. There exists a concept which states that, "mass is time".
In electricity, the mass-analogy is charge. Whittaker's bi-directional
structure of the potential explains the charge-time analogy.

The time-mass-charge analogy becomes clear through the comparison of
two formulae: Energy

in a charged condenser is described as:** E= 1/2(CU ^{2})**

where

while the formulation for kinetic energy is:

where

The term, "curved space" describes a process, related to mass. We observe
it as a result of our

Earth's mass-process. There exists a theory of own space frequency"
(OSF) that defines all

mass-processes for any specific planet. The concept is developed in
articles written by the Russian, Michael S. Eltsin. It leads to a logical
question: can we observe a mass-object only if it has the same parameters
(i.e.. frequency) as we ? What if there is a difference ? Can we design
a "chronal heterodyne" to allow us to observe other realities in other
OSFs ?

This matter is related to numerous anomalies. Deviations in the speed
of light from factor 3 in our

reality may account for non-discrete yet uninterrupted nature of dimensionality.
Research could

lead to engineering gradual changes in spacetime dimensionality. Inertial
propulsion systems probably modulate spacetime: surely non-reactive movement
involves motion in both space and time.

The use of non-reactive forces in power systems should generate excess
power without reacting to

initial inputs. This is a well-known "perpetual motion" concept. Over-unity
should be feasible if

output power derives from a non-reactive force, including electromagnetics
or electrostatics, as

the trilateral effect theory accounts for the process of time generation
in 3-dimensional spatial curvature. Over-unity power can be obtained only
jointly with a gravity/time effect.

This approach enables the design of a new mode of spacecraft. Previously,
anti-gravity drives were

assumed to require tremendous power (e.g.: from on-board nuclear plants).
With this "three-sided

effect," spacecraft could generate a bonus of over-unity power while
transforming the gravitational

field. This power would also act as a gravity propulsion system. In
such spacecraft it is not necessary to expend power; but there would be
a difficulty in transforming it into heat and in its use.

It is a trilateral, a "three-sided effect" [7]. In a general sense,
power can be considered to result

from changes in energy form. In over-unity cases output power may be
considered to result from

changes in spacetime parameters (space curvature, rate of time). The
source of energy is the gravitational
field or the flow of time.

The Law of Conservation remains true. However, it is necessary to generalize
it for multidimensional

cases. As now stated, the Law is valid for 3 dimensions only - changes
in gravity and time were not

considered. Another version can now be offered:
**The total energy of a system is the sum of the energy of spacetime
processes plus the processes of reverse space-time. This sum is constant
and is equal to zero [8].**

From this viewpoint, all we observe in the material world is only half
of the Universe. Any power

process is compensated by its equal anti-process h reverse-time. This
is Newton's Second Law for

Action and Reaction in a multidimensional version. Systems try to remain
at rest, by balancing sums

of equal, opposite processes. Power can be created from "zero", only
with an opposite process at

same level, as it is for the positron-electron pair.

Trilateral processes are also possible; conjointly, they attain a zero-sum
energy level. They are also

effective and may be the basis of a new science that would no longer
be dualistic (negative-positive, 1/0, etc.) [9]. In tri-polar "electricity"
A, B and C types of charges are composed of positive and negative elements.
The sum of A, B, C equals to zero, just as positive and negative charges
do.

Zero-sum energetics approach could be applied in "uninterrupted" logic
continuum, avoiding the

'yes-no" discrete solutions for problems and questions.

N.A.Kozyrev [10] created "cause-effect" mechanics, demonstrating experimentally
time-density

changes (as cohesion of cause-effect connection). With his theory,
time can be a free energy

resource. Living systems consume the flow of time as for their life-energy.
Likewise, the energetics of stars involve a transformation of time's flow
into the energy of light radiation. But it is critical to

acquire control of cohesion and stability of cause-effect connections
for any process. Since time is

rate of transformation of cause into effect, according to Kozyrev,
gravity-propulsion systems would

alter causality in the material world within operational range. Quantum-world
laws would act at the

macrosystem level with regard to local gravity and time parameters.

Alexander V. Frolov

1. Puthoff, Harold E.. The energetic vacuum: implications for energy
research. Speculations in science and technology, vol. 13(3), p. 247.

2. Valone, Thomas. Inertial propulsion, Newsletter ot Planetary Association
for Clean Energy, Vol.7(1), p. 6-12.

3. Re: NASA's electrostatic levitation experiments and Thomas Townsend
Brown's research, see: Newsletter of Planetary Association for Clean Energy,
Vol. 7(4), July 1994, special Nexus feature: Electrogravitics developments.

4. The Swiss Methernitha-Linden Converter, Space Energy, Vol. 4(2),
July 1993 p. 3-6. My understanding of this electrostatic device allows
a simple set-up: self-rotation due to electrostatic forces disk with an
electric generator at disk axis.

5. Edmund Whittaker's work (papers of 1903-1904) is developed by T.E.
Bearden in his book Gravitobiology, published by Tesla Book Co., 1991.

6. Ouspensky, P. D., A new model of the universe. New York. 1971, (p.
433 by 1993 Russian edition).

7. Simultaneous demonstration of "gravity/chronal/over-unity
power" effect is a 1960 invention of Ivan S. Filimonenko. His cold fusion
system produced: 1) heat. 2) motive force without the flying back af mass
and 3) influence on time-period of half-decay. See: article by N.E. Zaev,
in Izobretatel I Rationalizator, Vol 1, 1995, p. 8-9.

8. Frolov, Alexander V., The application of potential energy for the
creation of power, New Energy News, Vol 2(1). May, 1994.

9. Lensky V. V., Basis for multi-polarity, Irkutsk University, 1991.
[In Russian].

10. Kozyrev N. A., Selected works. University of Sf. Petersburg, 1991
[In Russian]. Now available: On the way for understanding the time phenomenon:
Construction of time, A.P. Levich, editor. World Scientific Press. 1995.

There is experimental evidence that vacuum fluctuations can be altered
by technological means.

This leads to the corollary that, in principle, gravitational and inertial
masses can also be altered.

This leads us to one of the most speculative, but nonetheless scientifically
grounded, proposals:

the Alcubierre Warp Drive. Miguel Alcubierre of the University
ot Wales set himself the task of

determining whether faster-than-light travel was possible within the
constraints of standard theory.

Although this clearly could not be the case in the flat space of special
relativity, general relativity

permits consideration of altered spacetime metrics where such a possibility
is not a priori ruled

out. Alcuhierre's further self-imposed constraints on an acceptable
solution included the requirements that no net time distortion should occur
(breakfast on Earth, lunch on Aplha Centauri, and home for dinner with
your wife and children, not it you great-great-great grandchildren), and
that the

occupants of the spaceship were not to be flattened against the bulkhead
by unconscionable

accelerations).

A solution meeting all of the above requirements was found and published
by Alcubierre in Classical and quantum gravity in 1994. It involved the
creation of a local distortion of spacetime such that

spacetime is expanded behind the spaceship, contracted ahead of it,
and yields a hypersurfer-like motion faster than the speed of light as
seen in by observers outside the disturbed region. In essence, on the outgoing
leg of its journey the space-ship is pushed away from Earth and pulled

towards its distant destination by the engineered local expansion of
spacetime itself. (For follow-up

on the broader aspects of "metric engineering" concepts, one can refer
to a paper published by

myself in Physics Essays in 1996). Interestingly enough, the engineering
requirements rely on the

generation of macroscopic, negative-energy density, Casimir-like states
in the quantum vacuum.

Unfortunately, meeting such requirements is presently beyond our technological reach.

It has been known for some time that general relativity permits the
possibility of wormholes,

topological tunnels which in principle could connect distant parts
of the universe, a cosmic subway so to speak. Publishing in the American
Journal of Physics in 1988, theorists Morris and Thorne have outlined the
requirements for traversable wormholes, and have found that, in principle,
the possibility exists provided one has access to engineerable, Casimir-like
negative-energy-density vacuum states.

In the wings of our deepening understanding of the quantum universe
in which we live, it is only a

matter of time before such "magic" will become the handmaiden of mankind's
drive to explore the

beckoning highways and byways of interstellar space.

*Dr. Harold E. Puthoff*

Dr. Puthoff is with the Institute for Advanced Studies, 4030

Braker Lane West, Suite 300, Austin, Texas 78759.

(512) 346-9947: fax: 346-3017

Alexander V. Frolov