There is an eternal battle, struggle and clash between the two primordial Cosmic adversaries: the Space and the Mass.
The Space treats the Mass as a hostile intruder which threatens Space's neutrality and voidness.
In fact, Space in order to disencumber itself from the concentrated presence of the Mass tries to dilute, dissolve and disintegrate the Mass.
To this end, the Space tends to tear and pull apart the Mass by sucking it out into its void and fragmenting it further and further.
At the primeval stage, the Cosmic mass was violently sucked out from its primeval state (perhaps as a primeval fireball) and with a furious and tempestuous force was fulminated into the Space giving rise to the existing Cosmos. I call that stage "The Big Suck Stage" and the corresponding theory "The Big Suck Theory" (contrary to the currently held "The Big Bang Theory" which is nonconvincing to many).
The sucking out process mentioned above, had caused and continues to cause the ejection, emission and spreading out of the masses and particles as continuously moving mass waves (or matter waves).
The Space's continual diluting and spreading out of the primeval Mass is confirmed by the Expanding Universe phenomenon.
In its turn, the primeval concentrated Mass tends to resist its disintegration and its fragmentation caused by the Space.
To this end, the Mass exhibits various reactions and oppositions to its being sucked out and diluted by the Space. This is confirmed by the gravitational attraction of Masses and by various other mass-attracting forces such as the electro-magnetic forces, weak and strong nuclear forces, etc.
It is not unreasonable to attribute to any object some qualities which are generally attributed to animate species and, in particular, to human beings. After all, all objects (animate or inanimate) are built from the same basic particles: electrons, protons, neutrons, etc., etc.
Thus, it is not unreasonable to expect that the basic instincts of the animate species are shared (sometimes to the smallest and almost undetectable degree) by all objects, be them space, particles, galaxies, cluster of galaxies or even the entire Cosmos.
I believe that the most basic instinct which motivates the behavior and actions of any object is the insatiable tendency to gain a "feeling of security". I cannot define "security" since I do not know of a more basic concept which could possibly be used to define "security".
The process of gaining a feeling of security by any object (animate
or inanimate) manifests itself mainly through:
(i) The tendency of maintaining the status quo,
(ii) Reaction to provocation,
(iii) The tendency of maintaining again (and not necessarily the
previous) a status quo.
With an anthropomorphic approach, one can say, that in any interaction
or in any relationship between any two entities or objects (animate or
inanimate), the tendency of gaining a feeling of security manifests itself
(iv) imposition of one's presence and of one's will upon the other(s)
i.e., will to power and the struggle for power.
Items (i) to (iv) can be detected in the clashes between the two primordial
Cosmic adversaries: the Space and the Mass. They convert the Cosmos
into a gigantic battlefield with massive stellar explosions, cataclysmic
collisions of meteors and with violent whirlings of expanding galaxies.
In fact, they make Cosmos replete with turbulent and
devastating encounters of celestial masses in a chaotic randomness which is even more random than the throwing of dice. It is a sheer idealistic euphoria on the part of Newton and Einstein to consider the Cosmos as being "Endowed with a profound Cosmic wisdom and a Celestial Supreme Harmony". This is a sheer ecstasy imbued in a slavish reverence.
On a smaller scale, manifestations of (i) to (iv) can be detected in the following examples:
Repulsion and attraction of electric charges. Space, in order to maintain its primeval status quo of electric neutrality, forces the like electric charges to repel each other so as to prevent the further concentration of electric charges. For the same reason, space forces the unlike electric charges to attract and cancel each other.
In the above example the presence of electric charges was the provocation and the reaction was their repulsion or their attraction.
Of course, the abovementioned tendency of Space to maintain its electric neutrality can be overpowered and huge amounts of like electric charges can be amassed.
Also, depending on the cases, the tendency of Mass to maintain its primeval status quo of staying together can overpower the repulsion of like electric charges if the gravitational attraction of the masses of like electric charges is more powerful than their electric repulsion.
In the same vein, when a glass rod rubs on wool,negative and positive electric charges are produced to attract each other and stop the rubbing process , i.e., to maintain the pre-rubbing status quo.
In the above example the provocation was the rubbing and the reaction was the production of unlike electric charges to stop the rubbing.
Repulsion and attraction of magnetic poles. Space, in order to maintain its magnetic neutrality, tries to minimize the number of free magnetic poles. So if two magnetic bars are separated, there are four free magnetic poles. Space tries to create a configuration in such a way as to reduce the number of free magnetic poles to two or to zero.
In the above example the provocation was the presence of the free magnetic poles and the reaction was the reduction of their numbers.
Magnetic field inside a loop. The reason that a constant supply of electric
current is needed to maintain a magnetic field inside a wire-loop is to
oppose Space's tendency to annul the presence of the magnetic field
which violates Space's magnetic neutrality. Conversely, if inside
a wire loop the status quo of the magnetic field is changed,
an electric current is produced in the loop to oppose the changing of the magnetic field's status quo.
Other examples of reactions to provocations. Striking a match. Striking gun powder. Striking (in variety of ways) an unstable elements such as uranium or plutonium. Triggering (provoking) fusion by fission.
Dropping a drop of water inside a sulfuric acid jar creates an enormous amount of heat just to evaporate the intruding drop of water so that the acid will maintain the status quo of its acid-concentricity. Conversely, dropping a drop of acid in a jar of water will provoke the water to dilute the drop of acid just not to allow the intruder to remain potent even in a small part of the jar.
Finally, best examples of reaction to provocation are the human beings.
Some (especially unstable) personalities will violently react to
a provocation and explode vehemently.
Probably the most used and the least understood item in science and in any other endeavor of human intellect is the item called "Time".
Since time immemorial, the passage of Time was and still continues to be measured by counting the periods of some periodic events. For this purpose an immense number and varieties of clocks were and still continue to be built. In fact, all kinds of clocks from water clocks, sand clocks (hour-glasses) sun-dials to the atomic clocks (such as cesium clocks) are still in use.
However, none of these clocks reveal the real nature of Time. Indeed, clocks do not make Time.
Similarly, none of the scientific theories reveal the true nature of Time. In the Relativity Theories of Einstein, Cosmos is treated as a four dimensional Riemannian manifold and Time is considered as one of these four dimensions on a par with the other three spatial dimensions. This is a mere idealistic illusory paroxysm.
I do not believe that Time can be treated on a par with a spatial dimension. Time moves forward irreversibly and irretrievably. I do not believe in the reversal of Time and meeting the same Cleopatra lying on a sofa letting an asp bite her breasts. Even if the planet Venus is reorbited into an Earth-like orbit and creation is recreated that would not amount to going back in Time since it would not be the same creation.
As everything else, Time also has the tendency of maintaining the status quo of its present instant which is another way of saying that Time has inertia, and as expounded below Time is another manifestation of Mass and in fact Time is as much of a universal entity as Mass is.
I believe that Time is moved through the entire Cosmos irreversibly and irretrievably at the expense of some irretrievable loss of Cosmic mass.
More specifically, I believe that :
(A) A certain m units of Cosmic mass is irretrievably lost to move Time forward T units throughout the entire Cosmos (to the units mentioned in (A), I will refer later).
(A) is the sense in which I have stated (in 1990) that there exists an (A*) Equivalence of Mass and Time
Clearly, (A) violates the "Conservation of Energy and Mass" in Cosmos. But the latter has never been proved to be valid. Also, (A) violates the principle of "Constancy of the speed of light throughout the Cosmos". I consider the principle of "Constancy of the speed of light " to be merely an idealistic euphoria.
We may formulate statement (A*) mathematically, as follows:
Since, in view of (A*), I consider Time as being Mass. Therefore mass M of the Cosmos and time T of the Cosmos must be measured in the same units. We let
(1) Mo indicate the mass M of the Cosmos at T = 0,J i.e., at the Big Suck.
For the unit of measuring M and T, we choose the mass Mo of the Cosmos at the Big Suck (i.e., at T = 0) and we call it 1 Abian. Thus,
(*) Mo = 1 Abian
If 1 Abian as given above is inconvenient for further calculations, we may choose, say, Mo = 10^100 Abians.
In what follows, we let Mo be as defined by (1) without replacing it with 1 Abian.
In view of (A), it is natural to assume that mass M of the Cosmos decreases exponentially with the passage of Cosmic time T. Moreover, since I believe that the Cosmic mass which is spent to move Time forward is lost irretrievably, and since I believe that Cosmos will never vanish , I assume that
(2) 0 < or = T < Mo and of course 0 <M < or = Mo
In view of the above considerations, and motivated by (A*), I propose the following equation to describe the relationship between M and T :
(3) M = Mo exp (T / (kT - Mo)) with scalar k < 1
Let us examine equation (3). As, expected (3) implies M =Mo at T = 0.
Also, from k < 1 and (2) it follows that k T <
T which again by
(2) implies that
T / (kT - Mo) < 0, for T > 0 in (3).
Therefore, M decreases exponentially with the passage of Cosmic Time T.
Let us observe that by (2) we have T < Mo. Nevertheless, substituting
T = Mo in (3) we obtain
M = Mo exp (k - 1)^ (-1). This must be interpreted as saying that the Cosmos will never vanish and its mass will always be greater than Mo exp (k - 1)^(-1).
The value of the scalar k in (3) must be determined experimentally. Of course difficulties are to be expected since (3) involves the mass M of the Cosmos at various cosmic times T.
Next, based on (3), we give a mathematical formulation of m mentioned in (A).
From (A) it follows that m = Mo - M where M is given by (3).
(4) m = Mo - M = Mo(1 - exp (T / (kT - Mo))) with
scalar k < 1.
We note that (4) expresses the equivalence of Mass and Time. For instance, (4) says that m Abian units of Cosmic mass is spent to create T Abian units of Cosmic Time.
In (3) we assumed that k < 1. It is quite appropriate to consider the limit of M in (4) as k approaches 1 from the left, i.e.,
(5) M = lim Mo (exp (T / (kT - Mo))
From (5) it readily follows that
(6) M = Mo (exp(T /(T - Mo)) with M = O at T = Mo
There are many techniques to approximate function M(T) such as
given by (6), I chose (for reasons mentioned below)
(7) M = Mo - \/ T Mo
But then according to (4), we let
(8) m = Mo - M
be m units of Cosmic mass which is converted into T units of Cosmic TIME (both in Abian units).
But then from (7) and (6), it follows that
Mo - M = \/ T Mo or m = \/ T Mo or m^2 = T Mo
(9) | T = A m^2 with A = 1/Mo |
where Mo is the initial mass of the primeval Cosmic fireball and Mo = 1 Abian unit and m is the Cosmic mass converted to Cosmic time T all in Abian units.
It may seem strange that the approximating formula (9) is highly preferred
to the formula (6) which lead to the approximation (6).
But this only indicates that (6) served as an intellectual stimulant and as an intuitive basis for developing the whole idea of the Equivalence of TIME and mass.
The unrealistic indoctrination of considering Time on a par with a spatial dimension must be abandoned once and for all.
As mentioned before, the abovementioned formulas of the Equivalence
of Mass and Time involve the mass M of Cosmos at any instant T of the
Cosmic Time. Thus,techniques should be developed to estimate the mass M
of the Cosmos at any T. In other words, a Cosmic massmeter should be
I would like to believe that the genius of mankind will be able to devise a satisfactory Cosmic massmeter and Cosmic Time will be measured in terms of the decreases indicated by the Cosmic massmeter.
Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.
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